* Anti-Bullying Law should get tough with schools
November 7, 2011
There should be more supervisions by the teachers & the administrators. Additionally, there should be further stricter punishments that could deter the bullies unreasonable conduct permanently. Merely giving warning to the bullies and suspension from school is not enough for it is only a temporary resolution. There needs to be a law that views "bullying" as a crime and sentence the "bullies" to proportionate punishments.
* Importance of Mandatory Anti-Bullying Program for our Youth
April 11, 2012
There are several main reasons why an Anti-Bullying Program is essential in every school.
First, both bullied students and bullying students has a tendency to be involved in a juvenile crime. Study by Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine in 2007, sample comprising 2551 boys (86.6% of the original birth cohort) with complete information about bullying and victimization from parents, teachers, and children at age 8 years, frequent bullies and those who frequently both bullied and were bullied (8.8% of the sample) were responsible for 33.0% of all juvenile crimes during the 4-year study period. Frequent bully-only status predicted both occasional and repeated offending, whereas bully-victim status predicted repeated offending. Bullying predicted most types of crime (violence, property, drunk driving & traffic offenses) when controlled with parental education level. Second, bullying situation will harm other students who are not bullies or bullied. It will harm the school environment by harming its purpose which includes civic, emotional, cognitive, vocational and social development. The students will always remain in fear that one could be the target of the bullies diminishing their focus on studying. Namely, bullying in school is not just a problem of individual torment but it is linked to lower academic achievement across the school which may later hinder the students from entering college or seeking for meaningful jobs.
Second, pursuant to the Child Development Center (CDC), Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people, resulting in about 4,400 deaths per year, according to the CDC. For every suicide among young people, there are at least 100 suicide attempts. Over 14 percent of high school students have considered suicide, and almost 7 percent have attempted it. 5 Bully victims are between 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims, according to studies by Yale University.
Lastly, under a Report for Plan International, despite a lack of data, the school violence does in fact have an economic impact on individuals, schools, communities and governments. These medium- and long-term costs include (but are not limited to): impacts on government expenditure through investments in education forgone (i.e. low educational performance and attainment of students) and lower tax revenues resulting from lower earnings. There are also impacts on public service providers of physical and mental health support, financed by the state, local governments or donors; on earnings as a consequence of a negative accumulation of human capital resulting from school violence; and from health risk behaviors that are triggered partly by the psychological impacts of school violence.`Such indirect costs can accrue to victims, perpetrators, communities, the private sector and the state through public sector spending and related losses in economic potential.
Affects of Anti-Bullying Program on Students
Then what could we do to resolve this crucial issue of "Bullying"? Because bullying starts at the early age when the kids begin their social relationship with their peers, it needs to be prevented at "school" availing programs that could deter the bullying act. Then the question could be is the "Anti-Bullying Program" effective? Recently a study of more than 213 programs found that if a school implements a quality "bully prevention programs" approved by the State along with its designated curriculum, it can expect better student behavior and an 11-point increase in test scores. (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor & Schellinger, 2011) It is said that the gains that schools see in achievement come from a variety of factors – students feel safer and more connected to school and academics, the programs build work habits in addition to social skills, and kids and teachers build strong relationships (Zins et al., 2004) Further, because the approved programs directly targets the self-regulated learning, students will have a better chance to control their feelings, thoughts, and actions. And especially under emotional demands, academic learning is optimized and bullying in schools is less likely to occur.
Every student deserves to attend a school that is "safe." As the age of our students is vulnerable in every aspect, it will be the adults who should provide education to help prevent harm done to the students due to bullying at the earliest stage. We can provide students with skills and knowledge for addressing bullying and provide self-regulated learning in order them to be active participants in creating a safe and productive educational environment for all the students as well. The purpose of a school is to educate our youth not only in the academic fields but also in the non-cognitive fields. However, in many countries including the United States, these programs are provided only upon the school's request. This must change. The program needs to be mandatory and be one of the academic curriculum for our youth. This will not only improve the academic environment of the school but also will let our youth learn the mistakes and life experiences beforehand and enable them to avoid these mistakes that could be threatening not only to the community, school, their peers but most importantly to themselves.
1. Childhood Bullies and Victims and Their Risk of Criminality in Late Adolescence, Article under the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine,
2. Bullying linked to lower school achievement: Column posted on "The Washington Post"
3. Organization of Bullying statistics: http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/bullying-and-suicide.html
4. The Economic Impact of School Violence: A Report for Plan International June 2010, By Pereznieto P.,Harper C.,Clench B., & Coarasa J
5. In Minneapolis, under the Minneapolis Public Schools – Student Support Service, "Bully Prevention K-5"
6. The Prevention Researcher. Volume 19(3): 18 – 19 pg
* PBC Supports Right to Marriage
January, 21 2013
Until now, "Right to Marriage" was merely protected under the "Fundamental Rights (i.e., rights that are not granted in the Constitution & rights that the U.S. Government and State Governments may impose restrictions on these rights)." However, safeguarded by Equal Protection Clause which is part of the U.S. Constitution providing "no State shall deny any person within its jurisdiction of the Equal Protection of the Laws" & also safeguarded by the Due Process Clause providing "the rights of citizen to life, liberty and property cannot be denied without due process of law", the U.S. Supreme Court should begin fulfilling its duty starting now, by paving the way for "Right to Marriage" to be a "Constitutional Right (that are proudly granted by the Constitution, unlike the Fundamental Rights, like certain rights not subject to restriction, such as the 8th Amendment "prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment" & the 13th Amendment "prohibition against slavery").
We should always remember, as many people already are, that All People are Equal in this world. And unless "Right to Marriage", along with other LGBT Rights that are still subject to restrictions under Fundamental Rights, be a "Fundamental Constitutional Right that is NOT subject to restrictions" in every nation, the "Equality of People" that is not only a Universal and Prescriptive Norm but the Key to Democracy in nearly every nation in this world will be meaningless in the long run.
* Black Lives Do Matter
August 14, 2014
by PBC 4.
Discrimination is said to be defined as “treatment of an individual or group based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category (race, age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disability, alienage, marital status, height, weight, etc.), in a way that is different and worse than the way people are usually treated (Cambridge Dictionaries (2014))."
According to "the Guardians Study", in the U.S., young African American men are nine times more likely than other Americans to be killed by police officers, and nearly 1 in 4 were identified as unarmed, which is still continued until this day. Further, it is said that despite making up only 2% of the total U.S. population, African American males between the ages of 14 and 34 comprised more than 17% of all deaths logged by a continuous investigation into the use of deadly force by police; and their rate of police-involved deaths was six times higher than for white men of the same age. Thus, this tragic statistics may likely imply, as it is defined above, "the treatment of African Americans is different and worse than the way other race are usually treated" which may likely fit into the category of "Discrimination".
Yet, (as many people know) not many police officers are found guilty of their consequences not only because police officers seldom get prosecuted for using force or shooting, but also due to the legal standards that is applied in court when prosecuted.
(1) When the police officers in the U.S. are prosecuted in court for the using force or heinous shooting to the victims, what actually matters is not whether there existed an actual threat when the deadly force was used, but whether the police officers objectively reasonably believed there existed a threat to themselves by the victim. Namely, if the police officers objectively and reasonably believed that their lives were in danger, whether or not the victim actually posed a threat or not, the police officers may not be found guilty under the United States Supreme Court (hereinafter USSC) ruling of Graham v. Connor (1989).
(2) Furthermore, in the case where police officers reasonably believe "violent" victim is trying to flee, for the purpose to protect the citizens from violence, the police officers are allowed to use deadly force to prevent the victims from fleeing and may not be found guilty under the USSC ruling of Tennessee v. Garner (1985).
And due to these (1) & (2) legal standards, which is applied until now, the police officers are given a great deal of legal latitude to use the deadly force without the dread of being punished.
There are other reasons the police officers are seldom being prosecuted for using force or shootings (as many people know), that are due to (3) the investigations of the incidents which may likely be held by the same police department where the defendant police officers are working, and also due to (4) distrusting the credibility of the eye witnesses.
What we desperately need is a Reformation and a Resolution in dealing with these endless tragedies. And, (as many people would have thought as well), there are possible ways to resolve these overwhelmingly sad deadly force incidents, that could be as follows:
(a) the aforementioned objectively reasonable officer standard must be reconsidered and applied "stricter" to the police officers, thus the police officers could think and act more cautiously in availing excessive use of deadly force in every circumstance in the warrantless arresting process (Deeply hope for better case laws that could proactively hold police officers accountable for using excessive force to keep every person in every community feel safer); and
(b) safer strategies (e.g., revise and strengthen police department use of force policies especially ban the use of chokeholds, carotid restraints, and transporting people face down in a vehicle unless the police officers has a probable cause and reason to know that the person actually possesses a deadly weapon) and conducting drills (e.g., create a situation where the police officers feel threat and practice how the police officers could deal with the situation in a reasonable and a safe way to both sides) by the police departments in coping with these regretful incidents to prevent the tragedies from keep on happening.
However, as we all know, not all police officers are unreasonable. There are a great number of police officers in this world, at this very time, working arduously reasonably and wholeheartedly, within good faith, serving the people in his or her community, day and night. Thank you to all the police officers, the servicemen and servicewomen from the bottom of our heart. Cannot thank you enough. Thank you.
Deeply Hope there come along a true Reformation and Resolution in polices, statutes, and case laws considering the use of force by the police officers, to Transform the idea of when and to whom the deadly force be used, to Prevent the gruesome incidents that is happening incessantly, to Remember the victims of violence, and to give Justice for the victims, all victims who lost their lives, far too young way too soon.
* Stop Terrorism
March 8, 2017
Terrorism is one of the most atrocious International Crimes. These heinous crimes are happening constantly and too many innocent people are dying unceasingly. However too little justice has been brought to the victims at an international level despite terrorism being regarded as a serious international crime.
The need of a strong and a thorough International Terrorism Tribunal is at its maximum . . a tribunal that could prosecute both the effects of terrorism and the act of terrorism itself for the purpose of preventing the wellbeing of the general public and the global values being harmed . . and most of all to bring justice . . for the sake of all the innocent victims of terrorism . .
May the Victims . . Rest in Peace . .
* Preventing Bullying in the Military
December 28, 2018
Human rights are defined as the Basic Rights and Freedoms all Humans are entitled of the “Right to Life, Liberty & Justice”. Bullying is relevant to Human Rights as Discrimination, for the purpose of preventing both discrimination and bullying is to Stop Treating People Differently. Discrimination is defined as “treatment of an individual or group based on actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category (e.g., race, age, gender, sexual orientation) in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated (Cambridge Dictionaries Online (2013))". Thus, people who discriminate are treating a person differently for unacceptable and unreasonable reasons. As to Bullying, it is defined as “the activity of aggressive behavior by an individual intended to hurt another, physically or mentally, behaving in a certain way to gain power over another (By Valerie E. Besag (1989)) due to race, social class, gender, sexual orientation, appearance, strength and ability (By Nels Ericson (2001))”. Thus, as discrimination, people who bully also treat a person differently for unacceptable and unreasonable reasons. Thus, Bullying is a Human Rights Issue.
And this Human Rights as to Bullying is no exception to the people in the Military, which consists of Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and Coast Guard in this world. In the armed forces, the military personnel are subjected to pressures and stresses to serve and complete their mission successfully. Thus, hazing bullying, which may likely incur additional mental and physical suffering, should not be tolerated. Thus, in the case of the incidents of hazing bullying in the armed forces, all members of the service have responsibility to intercede and halt the occurrences. It will be essential to support all service members by educating on (a) Identifying, (b) Reporting, (c) Investigating hazing bullying through witness statements, and most of all (d) Preventing hazing bullying in advance by “giving respect getting respect” to construct a Healthy and Safe Military Environment. Every person should treat other people with Dignity & Respect, which is the main strength of trust bonding, which could lead to encourage and hearten each other to complete important and successful missions. And this environment . . will be the ambience . . all members of the military deserve under their Human Rights!